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  • Writer's pictureBrian AJ Newman LLB

Understanding Division 6 – Sham Arrangements of the Fair Work Act 2009: An In-Depth Analysis


In the realm of Australian employment law, Division 6 of the Fair Work Act 2009 stands out as a pivotal provision. It addresses the pressing issue of sham arrangements, commonly encountered in the form of sham contracting. This comprehensive guide delves into the nuances of Division 6, exploring its legal framework, implications for both employers and employees, and the protections it extends to workers in Australia.

Defining Sham Arrangements

At its core, a sham arrangement involves an employer misrepresenting an employment relationship as an independent contracting arrangement. Such misrepresentation is often motivated by a desire to evade employer responsibilities, including providing employee entitlements and paying statutory charges like superannuation.

Understanding Division 6 – Sham Arrangements of the Fair Work Act 2009: An In-Depth Analysis
Understanding Division 6 – Sham Arrangements of the Fair Work Act 2009: An In-Depth Analysis

Legal Framework and Criteria

Section 357 of the Fair Work Act 2009 provides a legal definition of a sham arrangement, stating it is unlawful for an employer to knowingly or recklessly misrepresent an employment relationship as independent contracting. This provision is not limited to the initial hiring phase but encompasses the entire duration of the employment relationship.

Employee vs. Independent Contractor

Understanding the distinction between an employee and an independent contractor is critical. Employees are entitled to various benefits and protections under the Fair Work Act, which are not applicable to independent contractors.

Provisions of Division 6

Section 357: Misrepresentation of Employment as Independent Contracting

This section prohibits misrepresenting an employment relationship as an independent contracting arrangement.

Section 358: Dismissal to Engage as Independent Contractor

It addresses the issue of employers circumventing employee entitlements by changing the nature of the work arrangement.

Section 359: False Statements to Influence or Persuade

This section targets employers who mislead individuals into accepting independent contracting under false pretences.

Consequences for Breaching Division 6

Violations of these provisions can result in substantial penalties, including fines. The Fair Work Ombudsman (FWO) enforces these provisions through investigations and legal actions against non-compliant employers.

Employer Responsibilities

Employers are obligated to accurately classify their workers and ensure compliance with the Fair Work Act. Misclassification can lead to legal repercussions, financial penalties, and damage to the organisation's reputation.

Employee Rights and Protections

Employees should be well-informed about their rights and the nature of their work arrangements. The FWO provides assistance to individuals in sham contracting situations.

Broader Implications of Sham Contracting

Sham contracting arrangements have far-reaching consequences beyond the immediate impact on workers. They lead to a loss of government revenue and create an uneven playing field in the business sector.

Employer Diligence

Employers must exercise diligence in classifying workers, considering factors like control over work, financial risk, provision of tools, and expectations of ongoing work. Regular legal consultations and training are recommended to maintain compliance.

Worker Recourse and Rights

Workers who suspect sham contracting should seek clarification and assistance. The Fair Work Ombudsman offers resources and support, including investigation of complaints.

Promoting Compliance and Reporting

Encouraging adherence to the Fair Work Act is a shared responsibility. Workers, unions, and other stakeholders are encouraged to identify and report potential sham contracting arrangements.

Support from Professional Employment and Human Rights Advocates

Individuals affected by sham contracting can seek support from Professional Employment and Human Rights Advocates. Contact them at, call 1800 238 622, or visit for assistance.

Impact of Sham Contracting on Workers

Workers misclassified as independent contractors lose crucial employment protections and benefits, affecting their job security and overall well-being. The psychological impact of such misrepresentation is significant, leading to vulnerability and insecurity.

Economic and Social Impact

Sham contracting not only affects individual workers but also has broader economic and social ramifications. It results in reduced government revenue from taxes and superannuation contributions, impacting public services and creating unfair business advantages.

Responsibilities and Best Practices for Employers

Employers are advised to stay informed about the latest developments in employment law and ensure their practices align with legal standards. Regular reviews of employment contracts and practices are essential for maintaining compliance.

Employee Awareness and Advocacy

Workers need to be aware of their rights and the characteristics that distinguish employees from independent contractors. Advocacy groups and legal advisors play a crucial role in educating and supporting workers in understanding their employment status.


Division 6 of the Fair Work Act 2009 is an essential element of Australian employment law, ensuring fair treatment in the workplace and upholding lawful employment standards. If you are experiencing issues related to your employment status or suspect a sham contracting arrangement, do not hesitate to reach out to Professional Employment and Human Rights Advocates for guidance and support. Staying informed and proactive about your rights is key to ensuring fair and equitable employment practices in Australia.

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